CABAJ, Tatiana, wife
CABAJ, Antonina, daughter
CABAJ, Janina, daughter

CAJTAK-TARAS, Aleksandra (1913-)

Aleksandra had a small farm at the outskirts of Krzemieniec (now in Ukraine). At the end of 1942 some Jews managed to escape from the ghetto and came to her. First came Jan Kot, then Tola Kaplan and Zofia Kahan, then Czacki and Alpinski and two more persons, together seven (7) people. At the beginning they all lived in one room with a window on the garden. Then Aleksandra and her guests dug a hole under the room; it had an exit to the kitchen and another one was disguised as a hole for garbage. All survived. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CALKA, Szymon & Helena see CELKA, S.& H.
CAP, Maria
CAPF, Adolf
CAPF, Halina, wife
CAR, Czeslaw
CAR, Maria, wife
CAR, Stanislaw, son
CARELUS, (Karelus) Jadwiga see ZBIK-KARELUS, J.

CEBULAK, Stanislawa

Under the alias of "Ewa" she was in a group of persons in Cracow who helped the members of ZOB (Jewish Fighting Otganization) who managed to come there after the fall of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit

CEGIELKA, Czeslawa
CELEY, Jozef
CELEY, Felicja, wife
CELEY, Tatiana, daughter

CELKA, Szymon
CELKA, Helena, wife

Josef Czarny escaped from Treblinka during the revolt there in August 1943. He wandered a month until he found Szymon, who received him warmly, as he was helping already other Jews. He cared for him several weeks. Josef called him an angel. He survived. See: Paldiel, op. cit.

CERNY, Alicja see SEIPP, Waclawa, mother
CEKALSKI, Zbigniew , son
CELUCH, Konstanty
CELUCH, Justyna, wife
CHABER, Stanislaw, son
CHABER, Maria, Stanislaw's wife
CHACZE, Edward
CHAJEC, Walenty
CHAJEC, Magdalena, wife
CHAREZINSKI, Apolonia, wife

CHARLAMOW, Mikolaj, (1911-) colonel

He came to Luck (now in Ukraine) in September 1939 where, joining the underground, he provided Kennkarten to, among others, Mieczyslaw Zammenhoff, Szaja Kobylinski, Bronislaw Frenkel, a physician, Leon Schaff, Melich Fajerstein, Sara Pojas and her husband. Some of them he extricated out of the ghetto, others he transported to Warsaw, or put in contact with partisans. Almost all helped by him survived and emigrated to Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit.


Pawel, as a farmer at Lososna, near Grodno, (now in Belorussia) defended in 1941 a Jewish family, whom some Belo Russians probably wanted to hand over to Germans persuading them that it would be against principles of religion and morality. From November 1942 to April 1943 he transported 19 Jews from Grodno to Warsaw, as they wanted to escape the Soviet Zone. Among them were: the lawyer Berg, the engineer Fajerstein, Jakub Liwszyc with his wife Halina, the engineer Jerzy Lachert with his wife and baby. In Warsaw he provided them with false documents and found them safe haven. Almost all helped by him survived and left for Israel. See: Grynberg, op. cit. and Kaluski, op. cit.

CHARUK, Rozalia, wife

CHAWINSKI, Jan (1904-1980)
CHAWINSKI, Bogumila (1913-) wife

The Chawinski couple lived in Sosnowiec. They knew before the war Danuta Szwarcbaum-Bachmajer, who in the ghetto gave birth to a girl, Lucyna. Danuta asked Bogummila to take out the baby, what she did and even succeeded to adopt it. The childless couple became very attached to the girl. During the liquidation of the Sosnowiec Ghetto, Danuta managed to escape and to come to the Chawinskis and stayed with them a certain time. They procured her faked papers and dispatched her to some friends in the General Government area. In 1945 Danuta returned for her girl, now 5 years old, and left with her for Australia. The separation from the adoptive parents was extremely painful for both sides. In 1979 Lucyna with her husband visited the Chawinskis. See: Grynberg, op. cit.


Edward worked in the Warsaw Record Office. That office, with the approval of the delegate of the Polish Government in Exile in London, distributed numerous forged documents, including "Kennkarten", based on baptismal and marriage certificates obtained from many cooperating priests, always gratuitously as well for Jews as for Poles. So obtained their documents: Zdzislaw Goldberg, who got them for himself, his eleven (11) members family and for many friends, Maciej Daniel, Bronka Feinstein, Marcel Metelman, Halina Petersburski, Rafal Praga, Jola Tuwim, Felicja Stern with her 6 years old son, Jerzy Rynecki, Maria Checiner, Dr. Marek Marski. Edward gave his help to all that needed it even to people he never saw. Some people he placed with relatives. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CHEC, Stanislaw
CHEC, Karolina, wife
CHEC, Marianna daughter
CHEMIEL, Aniela see CHMIEL, A.
CHECINSKI, Slawomir Juliusz
CHIR, Marian
CHIR, Joanna, wife
CHIR, Michal, son, (Marian's brother ?)
CHLIPALSKI, Eugenia, wife
CHMIEL, Aniela

CHMIELENSKI, Maria, wife
CHMIELENSKI, Irena, daughter, psychologist

The family saved Janina Neuding, her daughter and mother-in-law. They received their medal in Warsaw, on Jan 14. 1999, according to the announcement of the Israeli Embassy in Poland


CHMIELEWSKI, Bazyl (not related)

CHMIELEWSKI, Michalina (not related)
CHMIELEWSKI-OGRODZINSKI, Stanislawa, daughter?

CHMIELEWSKI, Stanislaw (1909-1992) (not related)

Stanislaw from Warsaw had before the war many Jewish friends, one of whom was Wladyslaw Bergman. When he met him in Lublin they promised each other that the one, who will survive the war, will take care of the mother of the other. From Vilna, where he found himself in October 1939, he brought many letters from the Jews staying there to their families in Warsaw, e.g. for Pawel Hertz and Mieczyslaw Zamenhof. Minding the commandment of love he put it in practice in many ways: he tossed food and medicines into the ghetto, smuggled people out of it, procured them false documents and hid himself 24 of them. Among others he took care of the family of Janina Bauman, who had to change many times its shelter. He found them and accompanied each of them to personally. See: Grynberg, op.cit.

CHMIELEWSKI, Zenon (1895-) barrister (not related)
CHMIELEWSKI, Barbara (1908-) wife

The Chmielewski couple lived before the war in Dabrowa Gornicza (Silesia). When Germans occupied the town in 1939, they fled to Warsaw. In the ghetto was an acquaintance of Zenon from Dabrowa, Jakub Rechnic, who asked for help on the turn of 1941-1942. Zenon took care of him till the end of the war. Jakub invited him to Israel in 1961, as a proof of his gratitude for saving his life. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CHMURA, Wanda, daughter

Maria Perlberger lived in Wieliczka, near Cracow as the only child of parents with university education and assimilated to the Polish culture. In 1939 she was 7 years old. When Germans forbid schooling of Jewish children, they took clandestine courses, like many Polish children, for what the Germans decided the death penalty. Soon the family received other relatives from Cracow, where there was already a ghetto. In 1942 the Germans started massive killing of Jews. Maria's mother begged her to go to live with a Mrs. Duszczynski, mother of one of her colleagues. She did but feeling all alone she escaped the next day by the window, but eventually returned to her. Mrs. Duszczynski's mother took her to Cracow and put up with another nice lady telling her a fictitious story about the child.
Mrs. Duszczynski got for her a false baptismal certificate as Nowakowski. A doctor, friend of her father, who received from him all their valuables and was supposed to take her in, changed his mind, and told that he will release the girl to the Germans. Mrs. Duszczynski made him a terrible scene and he partly capitulated, promising that if they would find a place for her in Warsaw, he would pay for her upkeep. So Mrs. Duszczynski brought Maria by train to Warsaw and placed her with a Polish woman, who though was indelicate to her. Several people recognized in her a Jewish girl and they were all afraid. After a few weeks came another Polish lady, nice this time, and took her with her to Kolo (now Boernerowo, a pleasant suburb of Warsaw). She was Irena Chmura, whose husband was a POW. She wisely deflected inquiries from neighbors. Maria heard about the underground and wished that she too could fight for Poland. Irena Chmura took care also of an older distinguished lady, evidently Jewish, who liked Maria's company. When she died, she was buried in the Catholic cemetery, to avoid suspicion. During the Ghetto Uprising in 1943 the Polish underground press spoke about the Jews with highest esteem, but there were still some people who circulated funny stories about Jews, when at the same time news about Poles killed for harboring Jews were ubiquitous. In the fall of 1943 Mrs. Chmura put Maria in a Polish school, where she was well received and later in the Polish scout movement, in which she was with Irena's daughter, Wanda, seven years older than herself. So Maria took part in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. After its fall their neighbors, the Czechowskis invited Irena Chmura with Maria to stay on their lot. In October Wanda Chmura who was lost during the Uprising, found them. The Chmuras decided to go to their relatives to the Western part of Poland, incorporated into Germany. They could not take her with them so thy brought her to Cracow and gave her a note with an address on it. After a close escape from a Ukrainian, Maria went to the address given her. It was the address of Mrs. Kunicki, wife of that doctor who paid for her. She lamented what to do with her and placed her with other people; the last place being with a bigoted woman, prejudiced about Jews. When Russians entered, in January 1945 a couple from Lodz supposedly wanted to adopt her but she understood that they wanted rather to have a maid. So she escaped from them also and returned to Warsaw, where a neighbor, Mrs. Kaminski, who knew that she is Jewish, offered her to stay with her. Maria found a convent of Grey nuns near Piaseczno, where however reigned a terrible poverty. Wanda Chmura found for her a lay school, where the conditions were better, as this was a home for children of the militaries. This home moved to Silesia. There she got a postcard from her grandfather's sister, named Schenker. Maria went to Cracow to meet her, bur she was just leaving Poland. Maria returned to that home, always negating that she was Jewish. An uncle of her brought her to Belgium, but after two months put her into a children's home and then without her knowledge signed his accord for her being sent to Israel. Maria was very disappointed, a she felt to be sent against her will, although she stayed in Israel with her uncle's family for a certain time, where she also felt unhappy. Now she is married with children and grandchildren. Only in 1990 she was able to visit Poland. Both mothers, Irena Chmura and Zofia Duszczynski were dead at that time, but Maria was always in contact with Wanda Chmura, who visited her twice. Both Chmuras were recognized as "Righteous" in 1976 in a moving ceremony in Jerusalem. From Wanda Chmura she learned that it was Zegota, which was instrumental in her saving and that Zofia Kossak-Szczucki arranged the saving of a cousin of her. Maria found Wanda Duszczynski only in 1997 and the same year brought the recognition of her deceased mother, Zofia. Before all that, in 1985 she got a letter from the USA, in which she found her parents' letter begging their cousins, Alexander and Oskar Schenkers, to take care of Maria in the case that they would not survive. And so their love for her found her after so many years. See: Isakiewicz, op. cit.

CHODOROWSKI, Zofia, wife
CHODOR, Stefania, wife
CHODOR, Stanislawa, daughter
CHOLEWA, Wladyslaw, brother

CHOLEWA, Tadeusz (1908-1988)

Tadeusz lived in Wieliczka near Cracow. From 1941, with the help of his sisters, he hid Sala and Ezjasz Schnur and Sala's brother Jan Wasserberger. Sala gave birth to a baby, which endangered all of them even more. Tadeusz placed the infant in an orphanage and accompanied the couple to Cracow. Other people helped them to go to Warsaw. All three with the baby left for Australia. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CHOLEWICKI, Maria, wife

CHOLEWICKI, Malgorzata (not related) see STOBINSKI, Nina, mother
CHOMA, Feliks
CHOMA, Weronika, wife

CHOMS, Wladyslawa Laryssa, alias "Dionizy" (1891-1966)

With her husband, a carrier officer, she lived in Drohobycz, where she headed the Social Welfare Dept. She was elected head of the Democratic Party and protested against ghetto benches in local schools. They moved to Lvov in 1938. She entered the resistance and was very active in defending Jews, becoming the head of the Council for Aid to Jews in Lvov. With a group of idealists she extricated from the ghetto scores of Jews, procured them false documents, found them places of refuge and when necessary medical attention. Many had to cross to the "Aryan" side through the sewers, including children. Sacks of bread were brought to the ghetto. Jewish mothers put their children in these sacks or in garbage carts to be transported to the other side, where they were placed with 60 Polish families or in convents and orphanages. The "Angel of Lvov", as she was called, wrote the first report about the tragic situation of the Jews in that city, appealing for urgent help, which reached London and the USA. Two of her women cooperators were caught, tortured and killed. In 1943 she was ordered by the underground to go to Warsaw, where she continued her activities. Her husband, being a POW in Germany, died soon after the "liberation"; their only son was killed serving in the RAF. In London, where she went after the war, reached her an invitation from Israel authorities. She went there and much honored, died in 1966. See: Grynberg, op. cit., Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit. and especially: Bauminger, Arieh L.: The Righteous among the Nations, op. cit.

CHRASCIKOWSKI, Halina, daughter
CHROBOT, Malgorzata
CHROBOT, Stanislaw, son
CHROMCZAK-JABLONSKI, Janina see JABLONSKI, Wincenty & K. parents
CHROSZTEK, Franciszek
CHROSZTEK, Rozalia, wife

CHRUSZCZ, Maria, wife

These farmers lived with two children at Las Kamionka, county Salat, Tarnopol prov. When Germans liquidated the Salat ghetto in June 1943, Rudolf Zerkower, his wife and Hinda Kaczor found safe heaven with the Chruszcz couple, which built for them a second ceiling in one of the rooms. Thus between the two ceilings the fugitives lived 9 months and after the war went to Israel. The couple found the necessary strength in their very vivid Catholic faith. See: Grynberg, op. cit.


CHUCHERKO, Stefan (1900-1970)
CHUCHERKO, Zofia (1897-1978) wife
CHUCHERKO, Eugeniusz (1924-) son
CHUCHERKO, Henryk (1927-) son
CHUCHERKO, Lepold, son

The family rented a one-hectare farm at Nowa Gora, Cracow prov. They hid five (5) Jews: Bernard Feiler with his wife Bela, Henryk Feiler with wife Sala and her brother Icchak Grosman. When the fugitives did not have any more money, the family shared with them whatever they had themselves. One of the women bore a child, which after a few weeks was taken to a childless couple Noworyt at Miekinia. Icchak died in December 1944. They buried him under the floor of the pantry and after the war they transferred the body to the Jewish cemetery in Trzebinia. The Feiler child returned to its parents who left with it for Australia. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CICHY (CICHA?) Janina see GODAWA, Andrzej & Anna, parents
CICHON, Jozefa, wife


Still before the war she befriended Lidia Gutmer. During the war Danuta tried to keep up the spirit of her friend and when this escaped from the ghetto she rented a room and they both moved into it. When it was urgent to leave Warsaw, both went to Mielec and stayed there to the end of the war. Danuta was honored in Warsaw on Jan 14, 1999, as announced the Israeli Embassy in Poland.

CIELECKI, Maria, wife

With their son Witold they sheltered Miriam Koryski and her mother. Both survived. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CIEMIEGA, Stefania


Jan was a peasant steward in the manor of the Konopkas' at Opatkowice, near Proszowice, Cracow prov. A Jewish family of five (5), Israel Goldstein, his wife, two children and grandmother Meisels asked him for shelter. He put them up in the manorial barn to which he had access with a forged key. At night he brought them to his house for a warm meal and provisions for the next day. After a few weeks some burglars tried to enter the barn for the poppy seed. The Jews panicked and betrayed their hiding place. The field overseer drove them out. They were arrested, with the exception of the youngest son, 14 years old, who managed to return to Jan. The Civil Struggle Directorate provided him with forged documents and a job at a mill. Every Sunday he smuggled bread to his family in the ghetto, until they were dispatched to the crematorium. The other son, Majer arrested and severely beaten, told the torturer that he buried gold and dollars and offered them to show the place. Brought to that place and given a shovel to dig up the treasure, he gave a big blow to the German's head and escaped to Jan. This put him up with his father-in-law, Malek, at Rzedowice. Malek hid the boy in his garret and soon accepted two other Jews, Jozef and Jasia Wachselbaum. Tadeusz Seweryn, (q.v.) alias "Socha" told that each time he was in great danger in Cracow, he went there to hide with Malek, his daughter Aniela and Jan Cieply. Malek told him: "If I am to be hanged for one Jew, better they hang me for three". See: Bartoszewski & Lewin, op. cit.

CIESIELSKI, Romualda, wife

The Ciesielskis were driven from Bydgoszcz (incorporated in 1939 into the 3rd Reich) into the General Government, to Cracow. Romualda, a social worker started to help Jews, smuggling them out of the ghetto, providing them with forged documents, hiding them in her apartment. She was arrested in 1942 with her 9 years old son and sent to Auschwitz. Here in 1943 she was put in charge of 500 Polish and Jewish children between 4 and 15 years old from Warsaw and the Zamosc area. Thanks to her efforts many Jewish and Polish children were saved. Feliks was killed in March 1945. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CIESIELSKI-GRYNBLATT, Halina (1912-) daughter

Halina was the head of a preparatory school in Warsaw and in 1940 she married a Jewish student Jan Grynblatt. When her husband was forced into the ghetto, Halina went with him, but illegally visited often her mother on the "Aryan" side, bringing food to the ghetto. Jan was sent to the forced labor camp at Kaweczyn. Halina bribed the Ukrainian guards, got him out and organized for him faked documents. The Germans occupied part of the house to which the three moved. In moments of danger Jan hid in the wardrobe. All survived. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CIESLA, Stanislaw
CIESLA, Anna, wife

CIESLA, Wladyslaw (not related)
CIESLAK, Stanislaw
CIESLAK, Zofia, wife


Waleria, seconded by her brother, helped many Jews, in spite of her husband's deportation to Auschwitz. She harbored from the fall of 1943 till October of 1944 Tamchum Kupferblum, alias Stanislaw Kornacki, his wife Mala, both from Sandomierz and her boss, Dr. Backman with his son Jurek. In his testimony Tanchum Kupferblum (vel Stanislaw) writes that after many disastrous encounters with blackmailers, Blue and "Krippo" police, he felt finally safe. Gen. Kaminski provided Stanislaw, his family and 20 other Sandomierz Jews with a monthly stipend with money coming from Zegota, what Stanislaw did not know at that time. Tamchum's brother, Abram Kupferblum passed to him the monthly stipend of 1,000, later of 2,000 zlotys. Every recipient of this money signed a receipt with his faked name of the time. Tamchum vel Stanislaw tells also how Waleria concealed for two weeks 20 very rich Jews from Lodz. She did not ask them for any exorbitant sum for their upkeep. When they left that shelter, they were shot.
In a separate statement to Yad Vashem Tanchum Kupferblum (signed in the Israeli Consulate in the presence of this researcher) that described how in 1945 he met two elegant Cracow Jews who told him that they were saved by the renowned priest, Stanislaw Trzeciak, considered to be anti-Semitic. The two men told Stanislaw that the priest appealed to Poles to patronize rather Polish than Jewish shops. He wanted to show them that he did it not out of his anti-Semitism but for the survival of the Polish merchants. Yad Vashem recognized Waleria and Jan in 1955. The letter is dated Jan 1, 1996. Case No. 6660 was started in 1994. The priest, Stanislaw Trzeciak is not recognized.

CIESLICKI, Stefania, wife
CIESLINSKI-KIELOCH, Eugenia see KIELOCH, Jadwiga, mother ?
CIMEK, Jadwiga
CIMOSZKO, Magdalena
CIOK, Franciszek
CIOK, Maria, wife
CIOK, Zdzislaw, son

CIOK, Jan (not related)

CIOLEK, Stefania
CIOLEK, Helena Zofia, daughter
CIOLKOSZ, Kazimierz

CIOSMAK-BUSZKO, Anna (1908-)
CIOSMAK-ROGOWSKI, Lucyna, daughter?

Anna was a farmer at Siedliska, (Wolhynia prov. incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine). She rented her orchard to a Jew named Szeren, from nearby Korytnica. The Szeren couple was killed, but the children, 14 years old Ryfka and 16 years old Jankiel fled over to Anna. She made a shelter for them and sometimes took them into her house. After the war Ryfka went to the USA and Jankiel to Israel. They maintain correspondence with Anna. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CISZEWSKI, Ryszard, son
CISZEWSKI, Zdzislaw, son
CIUKSZA, Aleksandra, wife

CODOGNI, Stanislaw
CODOGNI, Karol, son (1916-)

The Codognis resided at Brzezany. During the final liquidation of the Jewish community there in June 1943, Fiszel Bomze asked his acquaintances, the Codognis, for shelter. With him came his daughter, Chana Redlich with her husband Wewe and their eight years old son Szymon and a daughter of Fiszel, Malka. Stanislaw had a forge, visited frequently by clients. The Codognis could not keep the Jews themselves and so placed them with some friends at the nearby village of Raj, but provided them with food. The Bomze parents remained in the ghetto and were shot. Zula Helman, 20 years old daughter of an attorney from Brzezany, who was later killed, also benefited from the help of the Codognis. Karol got for her a baptismal certificate from the priest Adam Lancucki and took her to an acquaintance of his in Lvov. All the young people survived and live in Israel, where Szymon is a university professor in Beer-Sheva. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CYGAN, Franciszek
CYGAN, Janina, wife
CYGAN, Edward, son?
CYGAN-KUSMIERZ, Helena, daughter?
CYGLER, Wladyslawa

CYWINSKI, Feliks (1902-1985) engineer

In 1965, the World Council of Jews gave a reception in Tel-Aviv in honor of Feliks Cywinski. He was one of the first to be recognized as "Righteous Among Nations", as his courage, determination and humanity were unparalleled. He was an engineer and before the war, a career officer in the Air Force, married with two children: a 13 years old girl and a 12 years old boy. When a friend, Jan Bochenski (Buchanski?) asked him in 1942 to help two Jewish women staying in the camp at Chyzyny, he went there to take their photographs for the "Kennkarten", extricated them from there and put them up in his house in Warsaw. He did the same for their relatives, Urszula Rubinstein, her parents, brother, sister and brother-in-law. He brought bricks in his briefcase to build a shelter for the seven people and lugged on his back sacks of coal and food. Jadzia Bursztyn, 12 years old, the four Kenigsweins, the couple Szac with their son and the couple Rybak were among those he sheltered. When there was no more money he sold his house, borrowed money and went into debt. His helper, Jan Bochenski, (Buchanski?) who started all this, sold also his 5 hectare lot to have money for the necessities of all those sheltered in apartments rented or bought. Some refugees had to change their place of abode up to 12 times a year. When one of his charges came down with typhoid fever, he brought him the doctor Jan Mockallo, medicines and injections "from under the ground" and even provided separate pots and dishes for those who were strictly orthodox. Feliks saved 23 Jews but helped even more, as not all survived the war. Extortionists harassed him. One night at 10 o'clock he was sleeping in the kitchen when Germans appeared. Feliks treated them to vodka; fortunately sirens sounded for an air raid. The Germans were so afraid that for the duration of the alarm, of two hours and a half, they drank vodka and omitted searching the house. Another time one of the women, sheltered by him, Regina Kenigswein, started to have labor pains. The other women were helpless. They, like the men being sheltered, were terrified that the crying of the baby would endanger them all. So the engineer had to act as midwife and received the baby literally in his hands, calling this the happiest moment of his life. Other persons, who cooperated with him, were his parents and sisters residing at Brwinow, near Warsaw, the porter Michalak and Antoni Polny, owner of an upholstery shop, who closed it for a certain time, supposedly for renovations, to accommodate Feliks's guests. When the Warsaw Uprising broke out on August 1, 1944, Feliks led out several of the Jews he had saved to take part in the fighting. They joined a group of 348 Jews of various nationalities, liberated from the Warsaw concentration camp "Gesiowka" on August 5, 1944. The liberators were the Scout Commando Battalion "Zoska", under the command of capt. Waclaw Micuta, an AK unit with two tanks captured from the Germans. Feliks extolled their discipline and bravery. See: The article by Joffe, Henryk, in the Polish "Izraelskie Nowiny i Kurier" in Tel Aviv; and also: Bartoszewski, op. cit.
Grynberg In his account about Cywinski, writes that in 1982 Feliks told him in great secret that in 1939, as a prisoner of war of the Soviets, he was taken to Katyn. He succeeded (one of the very few) to escape from it and return to Poland and so avoided the fate of the ca. 22.000 Polish officers killed there and in other places in Soviet Russia in April-May of 1940. His parents and sisters do not seem to be recognized.

CYWINSKI, Krystyna
CZAJKA, Paulina
CZAJKOWSKI, Helena, wife

CZAJKOWSKI, Szymon (1879-1962 (not related))
CZAJKOWSKI, Bronislawa, (1887-1968) wife
CZAJKOWSKI, Andrzej (1905-1990) son
CZAJKOWSKI-LIPINSKI, Bronislawa, granddaughter
CZAJKOWSKI, Walerian, grandson

The Czajkowskis lived at Zrecin, county of Krosno. In the summer of 1942 some Jews managed to escape the ghetto and camp in Krosno to the home of Szymon and Bronislawa: the four Lipiners, Chaskiel Morgenstern, Jozef Brajtowicz, Rubin, Maks and Roman Bergmans. The Czajkowskis made a shelter in their cowshed, from which the persons sheltered could go out only at night to get some fresh air. Particularly difficult was the problem of providing food for nine (9) people, which had to be brought from distant localities. After two years all were alive and free. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CZAJOWSKI, Franciszka
CZAPLAN, Marianna, wife
CZARKOWSKI, Jozef, Aniela's son ?
CZARKOWSKI, Stanislawa, wife
CZARNECKI-PIOTROWSKI, Wilhelmina see PIOTROWSKI, Kazimierz & Waleria, parents

CZARNECKI, Wladyslaw (not related)
CZARNECKI, Zofia, wife
CZARNECKI, Antoni, son
CZARNECKI, Danuta, daughter
CZARNECKI, Jozef, son
CZARNECKI, Zenon, son
CZARNOWSKI, Krystyna see OSTROWSKI, Nina, mother
CZARTORYSKI, princess, Helena
CZECHONSKI, Emilia, wife
CZEPIELUK, Maria, wife
CZEPIELUK, Katarzyna, daughter

CZEREWANIOW, Jan (1911-)
CZEREWANIOW, Katarzyna, wife

The couple lived in Dubno (town incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine) They adopted the six months old daughter of their acquaintances, the Goldszteins, when these were forced into the ghetto. At the end of 1942 Ukrainian police arrested Katarzyna for hiding a Jewish child. She explained that this is a child of a paramour of her husband, who abandoned her daughter. The couple avoided the deportation to the camp in Przemysl in 1943 and remained there till the end of the occupation with the adopted girl. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CZERNIAK, Stefania

CZERNIAKOWSKI, Zofia, a physician, his wife
CZERNIAKOWSKI, Lechoslawa, daughter

Zofia had befriended the Skotnickis, of Jewish extraction, parents of Anna, Alexander and Renata, now Zajdman. Renata was the darling of her illiterate Catholic nanny, Janka. She was also a close friend of Leszka (Lechoslawa). After the September 1939 campaign, Aleksander and Renata went to Bialystok, because their mother considered it more secure. When she died of typhoid fever, Aleksander returned to Warsaw to be with Anna, leaving Renata at the boarding school there, where she befriended a classmate, Irena Podbielski. In 1940 Aleksander and Anna were forced into the Warsaw ghetto and when Germany attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the same fate befell Renata: she was taken to the Bialystok ghetto and forced to work on road construction at the age of 14. Her faithful nanny, Janka, came to search for her, smuggled her out and both returned to Warsaw. Renata entered the ghetto to be with her family. Janka brought them food, money and medicines. In the summer of 1942 Renata decided to leave, and was smuggled out by a Polish "Blue " policeman, who worked for the underground, Pawel Golombek, who with his wife cared for her until she returned under the care of the Czerniakowskis. They got her the birth certificate of Irena Podbielski (thinking that she had died) and then a Kennkarte, as well as for her sister Anna, who also succeeded to get out. Leszka accompanied Renata everywhere. Janka, trying to relieve Renata's tension, took her to many different places, teaching her how to blend with the farm population. As Janka also tried to help Aleksander to get out, a German policeman shot her near the ghetto wall. So Renata stayed again with the Golombeks and the Barczaks, who also sheltered another girl of Semitic appearance. When Renata tried to commit suicide, their son, Janek saved her at the very last moment. He was later killed in the Warsaw Uprising. Renata let herself to be rounded up for forced labor in Germany where she worked as a Pole and managed to send food packages to the Czerniakowskis. They all belonged to the resistance and stayed in contact with Zegota, of which they told Renata nothing for reasons of security. Leszka was wounded in the Warsaw Uprising and was captured by the Soviets, who inducted her into the Kosciuszko Polish army under Soviet command, as they needed physicians and she was a medical student. Renata, liberated in Manheim in 1945, returned to Warsaw, and testified on behalf of count Czerniakowski. When the Stalinist rule established itself in Poland he was sent nonetheless to prison for 5 years, his wife for 3 years and Leszka was barred from completing her medical studies. Aleksander, after defending Pawel Golombek from the Communists, left Poland for Canada with Anna and Renata. In 1991 Renata returned to Poland, found Leszka and petitioned Yad Vashem for recognition of the Czerniakowskis as "Righteous Among Nations". See: Tomaszewski & Werbowski, op. cit.

CZERNIECKI, Stanislaw (1913-)

Living in Lvov during the occupation, he was a member of the AK resistance and helped several Jews. He gave the birth certificate of his brother to Marian Tennenbaum and transported his mother to Warsaw. Cyla Rozencweig also got her "Aryan" documents from him and thus was able to leave for Rumania with her small child; others left for Hungary. She returned to Poland while Marian went to Canada. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CZERNIEWICZ, Franciszka see NALEP(K)A-Czerniewicz, F.
CZESNOWICKI, Emilia, wife
CZESNOWICKI, Jadwiga, daughter
CZETWERTYNSKI, prince Witold
CZETWERTYNSKI, princess Julia, wife

CZEZOWSKI, Tadeusz, university professor
CZEZOWSKI, Antonina, wife
CZEZOWSKI, Teresa, daughter
They lived in Vilna, (city incorporated into the Soviet Lithuania). Before the war, Tadeusz fought against anti-Semitic outbursts. During the occupation he visited Jews in the ghetto, bringing them food and medicine. Then he gave refuge in his home to the family of Abram Fessel and Wolk, and later to another family. Besides, they had a room rented to a Lithuanian. For security's sake they did not tell him anything about their eight (8) guests. The professor got them fake documents and sent Abram's family, Rachela Gurwicz-Kaplanowski, Mayena, Tamara Wolfson and Chaim Epstein with his family, to his acquaintances the Iwanowskis, near Dzisna. For all these years he harbored also Zlata Koczerginski-Burgin in his apartment. At his request, his assistant, Zajkowski, harbored Cywia Nabozna-Wildstein. All survived. The family was invited to Israel in 1963 to be decorated as "Righteous Among Nations". See: Their photo on p. 656 of Grynberg, op. cit.

CZOLOWSKI, Stanislaw (1880-1946)
CZOLOWSKI, Aniela (1886-1969) wife

The couple lived with their daughter Zofia (later Majewski) in Lvov. Stanislaw owned a stationery business and had contacts with many Jews. Aniela provided food for her friend, Klara Penzias in the ghetto, but Klara died of natural causes before the liberation. Stanislaw, according to the testimony of Maria Warschauer, helped her and two sisters Sabina and Lola Szenicer in a critical moment. When the three women were escaping from the Germans toward the Soviet side, he transported them to the river Bug, found them a boatman, paid for their crossing and placed them on a nearby estate. Asked for help by Dr. Mieczyslaw Bannet from Cracow, interned in the Lvov ghetto, Stanislaw entered the ghetto, but was arrested and imprisoned. The family succeeded to free him but he was already gravely ill. See: Grynberg, op. cit.

CZUBA, Jozef

CZUBA, Michal (not related)

CZUBAK, Genowefa, nun

She was called Sister Dolorosa in the Convent of the Order of St. Ignatius of Loyola, at Pruzana, in northeastern Poland. When she took ill, the nuns brought from the ghetto the only physician in that locality, Dr. Olga Goldfein. In Agust 1942 the doctor, under the pretext to see how his patient is doing, visited the convent and sister Dolorosa promised to help. In November Dr. Olga, after an unsuccessful attempt on her life, came to the convent begging for help. She remained hidden in the convent for several weeks. When the superiors in Bialystok learned of that, sister Dolorosa was reprimanded for infringing the rules by giving access to a lay person, and deprived of her teaching position. In January Dr. Olga appeared again at the gate of the convent, this time after having escaped from a transport of Jews to a death camp. She was given a nun's habit as sister Helena and both left the convent. They marched from village to village, until they reached Olszyny, Sister Dolorosa's family, where they stayed for 15 months. Sister Helena dispensed her medical attentions to whoever needed it. After the war Sister Dolorosa was informed that she was being expelled from the convent, removed her nun's habit and returned to her secular name, remaining faithful to her religion. Dr. Goldfein left for Israel and died in 1974. See: Paldiel, op. cit.

CZUBCZENKO Danuta, wife
CZUBCZENKO, Leon's mother
CZUBEK, Danuta

CZUPRYNIAK, Wladyslaw (1895-1952)
CZUPRYNIAK, Irena (1906-1979) wife
CZUPRYNIAK, Janusz Wlodzimierz (1925-) son

The Czupryniaks lived at Ursus near Warsaw. Wladyslaw had business contacts with Mosze Lejb (Marian) Rottenberg from Radom. Their common acquaintance, F. Zugajewicz, proposed that Janusz help the Rottenbergs who were in the ghetto. Janusz, a soldier of the AK, helped in 1942 Mosze and his wife Olga to leave the ghetto, and after a brief stay at Zugajewicz, transported them by a furniture cart to his parents' house. The Jews stayed at the house but in case of danger could use a shelter outside, made out of a projected canalization opening. Janusz went also to Radom in order to bring their old parents but did not find them alive. After the war Rottenberg resumed work in his factory. After 1950 the family left for Germany and Australia. See: Grynberg, op. cit

CZYRNY, Michal
CZYRNY, Anna, wife

Michal and Anna hid in their house in Lvov the four members family of Tadeusz and Fryderyka Rozanski with their children, Anna and Aleksander during the years 1942-44, with the help of Anna's aunt, Maria Borys (q.v.) and of same neighbors'. After the war the Rozanskis left for Canada and Aleksander changed his name to Rossi. He died in 1994. Yad Vashem recognized the three in 1997. Case No. 7090 and 7090a. Their cause was started in 1993.

CZYZYKOWSKI, Maria, wife
CWIK, Zofia